The Copts in Egyptian Politics (RLE Egypt (Routledge Library Editions: Egypt)
A work of history, culture, politics, economics, packed with period photographs and period insights. By Ayse Ozil. Orthodox Christians, as well as other non-Muslims of the Ottoman Empire, have long been treated as insular and homogenous entities, distinctly different and separate from the rest of the Ottoman world. Despite this view prevailing in mainstream historiography, some scholars have suggested recently…. Edited by Benjamin C.
Tracing the emergence of minorities and their institutions from the late nineteenth century to the eve of the Second World War, this book provides a comparative study of government policies and ideologies of two states towards minority populations living within their borders. Making extensive use…. This book explores the political relationship between the Muslim majority and Coptic minority in Egypt between and Many Egyptians hoped to see the collaboration of the revolution spur the creation of both a new collective Egyptian identity and a state without religious bias.
New All Published Forthcoming. Ibn Rushd Averroes 1st Edition By Dominique Urvoy The twelfth-century philosopher Ibn Rushd, also known as Averroes, played a crucial role in the transmission of classical philosophy to Islam, and his work had a profound influence on western scholasticism and on aspects of Renaissance thought.
This book, first published in , sets out the main… Paperback — Routledge. The Muslim Contribution to Mathematics 1st Edition By Ali Abdullah Al-Daffa' This book, first published in , discusses the Muslim contribution to mathematics during the golden age of Muslim learning from the seventh to the thirteenth century.
It was during this period that Muslim culture exerted powerful economic, political and religious influence over a large part of… Paperback — Routledge. Entelis After over a century of intensive colonial rule and nearly eight years of revolutionary warfare, Algeria emerged in a state of total economic decrepitude and political backwardness. Yet in the two decades following independence in the country achieved a remarkable degree of political stability… Paperback — Routledge Routledge Library Editions: North Africa. The priests of Amun, who administered the rites of the temple, would eventually grow so powerful they would threaten the authority of the pharaoh and, by the Third Intermediate Period BCE the priests of Amun would rule Upper Egypt from Thebes.
The Hyksos were a people of unknown origin and ethnicity though many theories have claimed to be able to identify them who either invaded Egypt or migrated into the region and steadily took power. They were firmly in control of Egypt by c. The Thebans and the Hyksos abided by a truce which forbade hostilities but did not guarantee any amicable relations between the two.http://princessadeja.com/includes/housing/4817-casus-facebook.php
Routledge Library Editions: Egypt
The Theban armies under Ta'O attacked the Hyksos cities. After his death , his brother Ahmose I took charge and captured the re-built city of Avaris, the Hyksos capital. Ahmose I drove the Hyksos out of Egypt and reclaimed the lands formerly ruled by them. Thebes was celebrated as the city which had liberated the country and was elevated to the position of capital of the country.
With Egypt stabilized again, religion and religious centers flourished and none more so than Thebes. The shrines, temples, public buildings and terraces of Thebes were unsurpassed for their beauty and splendor. It was written that all other cities were judged 'after the pattern of Thebes'.
The power and beauty of the great god Amun needed to be reflected fully in the holy city of Thebes and every building project sought to out-do the last in proclaiming the glory of this god. Work continued on the Temple of Karnak, but other temples and monuments rose as well.
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Most of the greatest monuments of ancient Thebes were either constructed, renovated, or improved upon during this period from c. During the reign of Akhenaten originally known as Amenhotep IV, BCE the priests of Amun at Thebes had become so powerful that they owned more land than the pharaoh and had more wealth than the crown. Scholars believe this situation may have prompted Amenhotep IV to adopt monotheism and proclaim the Aten - the sun disk - the supreme deity.
In denying the existence of other gods, Akhenaten effectively cut off the source of the priests' wealth and power.
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The worship of all other gods except the Aten was outlawed, sacred icons and statuary destroyed, and the temples of Amun closed. If Akhenaten's true motive for religious reformation was to crush the priests of Amun and absorb their power, it worked; there was now only one true God whose will was interpreted by Akhenaten alone. While this new belief worked well for the pharaoh and the royal family, the people of Egypt were highly resentful. The worship of the many traditional gods of Egypt was an important aspect of everyday life throughout the country, and there were many, besides the priests, who lost their jobs once Akhenaten's monotheism became the religion of the land.
Every merchant who sold religious artifacts and charms, every craftsman who made them, every scribe who wrote spells or prayers, was unemployed unless they turned their efforts to promoting the pharaoh's religion. After Akhenaten's death, his son Tutankhaten "living image of Aten" took the throne and changed his name to Tutankhamun "living image of Amon" and restored the old gods and their temples. The capital was returned to Thebes, and a renewed interest in building projects began, perhaps to make amends to the gods who had been neglected, which produced even more glorious temples and shrines.
The western shore of Thebes became a vast and beautiful necropolis in the years and centuries following and the mortuary complexes at Deir-El Bahri like the one of Queen Hatshepsut were awe-inspiring in their symmetry and grandeur. Tutankhamun was succeeded by his general Horemheb BCE , who believed that the old gods of Egypt were angered by the heretic king's insult to their honor. He encouraged building projects at Thebes and elsewhere and destroyed any iconography related to the worship of Aten or the royal family of the Amarna Period.
He named Ramesses I as his successor who founded the 19th Dynasty. On a simpler level, he may have done this simply because there was nothing of significance he could add to the grandeur of Thebes and he was a pharaoh who needed to make an impression. Avaris now grew in prosperity and beauty as Thebes declined in power but this was a temporary situation.
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The priests of Amun, able to do as they pleased so far removed from the sphere of the pharaohs at Avaris, acquired significant amounts of land through which they amassed more and more wealth and greater power. By the time of the Ramessid Period they were ruling Thebes as pharaohs and the actual rulers at Avaris could do nothing about it.
The city declined during the Third Intermediate Period but still was impressive. The Nubian pharaoh Tatanami made Thebes his capital in the 7th century BCE, linking himself to the glory of the past, but his reign was short-lived. The Assyrians decreed that Thebes should be restored and rebuilt by Egyptian labor to compensate for their resistance to Assyrian rule.
The city gradually recovered and worship of Amon continued there until the coming of Rome when it was destroyed by the Roman army in the 1st century CE.
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Afterwards it remained in ruins, populated only by a few people inhabiting the buildings which had been left vacant after the Romans moved on. By the time of the historian Strabo c.
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The student resources previously accessed via GarlandScience. Resources to the following titles can be found at www. With many engravings, nearly 50 coloured plates and a map. His vivid personality has appealed to many writers, who have concentrated the limelight on him. Merely to inhabit a desert demands much skill, craft, experience and travel. For the numerous nomadic tribes of Africa and the Middle East, living ancestors of the Egyptians, Jews and Arabs, Egypt is their meeting ground.
The author, with twenty-five years of accumulated knowledge, here sets out to The assassination of Sadat brings to an end another era in Egyptian history. This book examines the crucial issues in the transformation of Egypt in the period between the death of Nasser and the murder of Sadat. Focusing on the upheavals in the Egyptian political and economic structure over the As the leaders of a revolutionary, nationalist regime, the Egyptian Free Officers who came to power following the Revolution committed themselves to the attainment of goals associated with modernization, namely rapid economic development based on State planning and industrialization and the Over the last ten years the Egyptian economy has undergone a major transformation which has led to greater decentralisation and international competition.
This transformation, along with changing circumstances in the surrounding Arab areas and the end of hostilities with Israel, has given a boost A work of history, culture, politics, economics, packed with period photographs and period insights. This book explores the political relationship between the Muslim majority and Coptic minority in Egypt between and